The effect of the number of operations on the physical phenomenon of electrical contact

The arc energy probability of Ag/Zn(10) electrical contact materials prepared by ASE process at different operation times. The results show that when the number of operations is 10000, the arc energy probability distribution is different from all other operations and the arc energy value is also the largest; when the number of operations is 1000 and 3000, the arc energy probability distribution has 99% similarity and their average values are also similar (312.8mJ and 309.3mJ respectively); when the number of operations is 5000 and When the number of operations is 5000 and 20000, the arc energy probability distribution is also basically the same (99% similarity); the arc energy of 40,000 times is smaller than the arc energy value of 30,000 times. The average values of arc energy for different number of operations are in the following order from small to large: N3000(309.3mJ)<N1000(312.8mJ)<N5000(353.6mJ)<N20000(355.9mJ)<N40000(379.7mJ)<N30000(424.3mJ)<N10000(539.2 mJ).

The arc time probabilities of Ag/ZnO(10) electrical contact materials prepared by ASE process at different number of operations. The results show that the probability distribution of arc time and arc energy are basically the same when the number of operations is 10,000; the probability distribution of arc time is basically the same (99% similarity) when the number of operations is 1000 and 3000; the probability distribution of arc time has 80% similarity when the number of operations is 5000, 20,000 and 40,000; the number of operations is The arc time at 30,000 operations is larger than that at 40,000 operations, and the arc time at 10,000 operations is the longest. The average arc time for different number of operations was ranked from smallest to largest: N3000 (3.567ms) < N1000 (3.782ms) < N5000 (4.156ms) < N20000 (4.176ms) < N40000 (4.277ms) < N30000 (4.850ms) < N10000 (6.518 ms).

The melt force probability of Ag/ZnO(10) electrical contact materials prepared by ASE process at different number of operations. The results show that the melt force probability distribution is basically the same for 3000, 5000 and 10000 operations, with 99% of the melt force being less than 5×10-²N; the melt force for 1000 operations is slightly greater than that for 3000, 5000 and 10000 operations, with 99% of the melt force being less than 6×10-²N; the melt force for 20000, 30000 and 40000 operations is greater than that for 1000 operations, with 99% of the melt force being less than 6×10-²N; and the melt force for 20000, 30000 and 40000 operations is greater than that for 1000 operations. The average welding force for different number of operations in descending order is: N5000 (1.535×10-2N) < N3000 (1.728×10-2N) < N10000 (2.116×10-2N) < N10 ( 3.424×10-²N)< N40,000(4.819×10-²N)<N20,000(5.858×10-²N)<N30,000(6.201×10-²N).

The average values of arc energy, arc time and fusion welding force for Ag/ZnO(10) electrical contact materials prepared by ASE process at different operation times are shown in Figs. 3-4. The results show that the average values of the Ag/ZnO(10) ASE energy and arc time change in the same trend with increasing the number of operations. The average values of arc energy and arc time of Ag/ZnO(10) ASE electrical contact material were the largest when the number of operations was 10,000, which were 539.2 mJ and 6.518 ms, respectively; while the average values of arc time fluctuated less under other operation numbers (1000, 3000, 5000, 20,000, 30,000, 40,000). The average values of arc energy and arc time increased with the increase of the number of operations from 1000 to 10000. As the number of operations increases, the trend of the average value of the fusion force of Ag/ZnO(10) ASE contact material is different from the arc energy and arc time. The average welding force of Ag/ZnO(10) ASE contact material was the highest (6.201×10-²N) when the number of operations was 30,000. The average melt force decreases with increasing number of operations from 1000 to 5000, and increases with increasing number of operations from 5000 to 30,000.

The resistivity and temperature variation values of the Ag/ZnO(10) electrical contact materials prepared by the ASE process at different numbers of operations are shown in Figs. 3-5. The results show that the resistivity of the Ag/ZnO(10) ASE electrical contact material does not change regularly with the increase of the number of operations, but in a sawtooth pattern. When the number of operations increased from 1000 to 10000, the temperature change of Ag/ZnO(10) ASE electrical contact material basically increased with the increase of the number of operations; when the number of operations was 20000, the resistivity change of Ag/ZnO(10) ASE electrical contact material had the largest value (0.175mΩ); when the number of operations was 10000, the resistivity change of Ag/ZnO( 10) ASE electrical contact material had the largest temperature change and the smallest resistivity change.

The mass variation of Ag/ZnO(10) electrocontact material prepared by ASE process at different number of operations. It can be seen from Figs. 3-6 that the mass on the cathode electrical contacts decreased at different operation times, with the largest mass change (12 mg) at 10,000 operations and the same and smallest mass change (0.2 mg) at 3,000 and 5,000 operations. The mass on the anode electrical contacts increased when the number of operations was 5000, 30,000 and 40,000, while the mass on the anode electrical contacts decreased at all other operation times (1000, 3000, 10,000 and 20,000), with the greatest change in mass at 1000 operations, where the mass decreased by 0.5 mg. At different operation times The total mass on both cathode and anode electrical contacts decreased for different numbers of operations, with the largest change in total mass (1.4 mg) for 10,000 operations and the smallest change in total mass (0.1 mg) for 5,000 operations.

The three-dimensional macroscopic arc erosion morphology of Ag/ZnO(10) electrical contact materials prepared by ASE process at different operation times (1000, 3000, 5000, 10,000, 20,000, 30,000 and 40,000 times) on both cathode and anode electrical contacts. From Figure 3-7, it can be seen that the surface morphology of Ag/ZnO(10) ASE cathode and anode electrical contacts changed under the effect of arc erosion, and the surface morphology of cathode and anode electrical contacts changed more and more as the number of operations increased. When the number of operations was less than 5000, the surface morphology of the cathode electrical contacts did not change greatly, while the surface of the anode electrical contacts showed round erosion spots, and the diameter and depth of the spots increased with the increase of the number of operations. When the number of operations was greater than 5000, small erosion peaks began to appear on the surface of the cathode contacts, and with the increase in the number of operations, the volume of small peaks increased and the number of peaks increased; while the round erosion pits on the surface of the anode contacts collapsed, and with the increase in the number of operations, the erosion pits collapsed more and more seriously. Under the same operation times, the morphological changes on the surface of the anode electrical contacts were much more serious than those on the cathode electrical contacts. Therefore, the arc erosion on the Ag/ZnO(10) ASE anode electrical contacts was more severe than that on the cathode electrical contacts under the same service conditions, and the arc erosion on the Ag/ZnO(10) ASE electrical contacts became more and more severe with the increase of the number of operations.

Two-dimensional profile data on the cathode and anode electrical contacts prepared by the ASE process for Ag/ZnO(10) electrical contact material at different operation times (1000, 10000 and 40,000 times). When the number of operations was 1000, the X- and Y-profile profiles of the cathodic contacts did not change very much (see Figure 3-8(al)); while the X- and Y-profile profiles of the anodic contacts changed, with collapse of the right profile on the X-profile and erosion pits on the Y-profile (see Figure 3-8(az)). When the number of operations was 10,000, both the X-profile and Y-profile profiles of the cathode and anode electrical contacts changed, with a small bump and slight collapse on the X-profile of the cathode electrical contact and a small bump and larger collapse on the Y-profile (see Figure 3-8(b)); both the X-profile and Y-profile of the anode electrical contact showed a larger collapse (see Figure 3-8(b)). When the number of operations was 40,000, small craters appeared in the X profile of the cathodic electric contact and small convex peaks appeared in the Y profile (see Figure 3-8(c)); craters and convex peaks appeared in the X profile of the anodic electric contact, and convex peaks and very severe collapse appeared in the Y profile (see Figure 3-8(cz)). Thus, the two-dimensional profile changes of the Ag/ZnO(10) ASE cathode and anode electrocontacts became more and more severe as the number of operations increased.

The two-dimensional macroscopic arc erosion morphology of the cathode and anode electrical contacts prepared by ASE process at different operation times (1000, 3000, 5000, 10,000, 20,000, 30,000 and 40,000 times). As can be seen from Figure 3-9, when the number of operations is small, the surface morphology of the cathode and anode electrical contacts does not change much, but as the number of operations increases, the surface morphology of the cathode and anode electrical contacts changes more and more seriously, and the erosion spots on the surface of the electrical contacts become larger and larger. Under the same operation times, the surface morphology of the anode electrical contacts changed more seriously than that of the cathode. This indicates that the arc erosion occurred on the surface of the electrical contacts became more and more serious as the number of operations increased, and the arc erosion occurred on the anode electrical contacts was more serious than that on the cathode under the same number of operations.

The cathode, anode, and total erosion spot diameters of AZnO(10) electrocontact materials prepared by the ASE process for different number of operations are shown. From Figure 3-10, it can be seen that for the same number of operations, the erosion spot diameters on the anode contacts are larger than those on the cathode; moreover, the cathode, anode and total erosion spot diameters increase with the increase of the number of operations.

Metallographic microstructures of the cross-sections of the cathode and anode electrical contacts of the ASE process-prepared AZn(10) electrical contact material at different operation times. As can be seen from Figs. 3-11, no obvious silver melt pool was formed near the surface layer of Ag/ZnO(10) ASE electrical contact material under the arc operation, and no obvious erosion zone was observed. There was no significant difference in the metallographic microstructure of the cathode and anode cross-sections of the Ag/ZnO(10) ASE electrical contact material with the increase in the number of operations.

**Author**

**Author**

Hello, my name is Eva Xia, and I am currently the Marketing Manager at Yueqing Weup Technology Co., Ltd, located in Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China. With over a decade of experience in the accounting field, I have developed extensive knowledge and skills that enable me to excel in my role. Additionally, I have spent two years working as an English teacher, which enhanced my communication abilities and instilled discipline within me.

Having gained more than three years of valuable experience in overseas sales, I have had the opportunity to expand my horizons and develop a deeper understanding of the commercial landscape. This exposure has nurtured my business understanding and allowed me to navigate diverse markets confidently.

However, despite my accomplishments thus far, I remain dedicated to continuous growth and learning. My current area of focus revolves around electronic switches. It is a fascinating and dynamic field that constantly evolves with technological advancements. By delving deeper into this realm, I aim to enhance my professional knowledge and stay ahead of industry trends.

In summary, as a Marketing Manager at Yueqing Weup Technology Co., Ltd., I bring forth a wealth of experience in accounting coupled with the valuable skills honed during my time as an English teacher. Furthermore, my extensive overseas sales expertise has sharpened my business acumen. With a relentless thirst for knowledge and a specific interest in electronic switches, I strive to enhance my professional capabilities further while contributing positively to our organization’s success.

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